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Optical media

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An outgrowth of the High Sierra and ECMA-119 (2nd Edition) specifications (the first edition wasn't widely implemented, and is useful only for historical value).

Relaxed 9660


A 1995 specification by Microsoft designed to address ISO9660:1988's shortcomings and restrictions regarding:

  • Character set
  • File name length (raised to 128 bytes from 30)
  • Directory tree depth (eliminated 8-level hierarchy restriction, retains 240 total byte limit)
  • Directory name format (raised to 128 bytes from 9660L2's 30, and adds file name extensions)
  • Character sets ((almost) complete UCS-2 character set, using big-endian encoding)

Joliet implies use of ISO/IEC 10646 (UCS-2) in file naming, and can be detected by examining an ISO9660 SVD (Supplementary Volume Descriptor, ISO9660 section 8.5.6)'s "Escape Sequences" field for the UCS-2 escape sequences

  • 25 2f 40,
  • 25 2f 43, or
  • 25 2f 45.

The following UCS-2 sequences are not allowed in a Joliet file name:

  • All code points between 00 00 and 00 1f (control sequences)
  • 00 2a (asterisk)
  • 00 2f (forward slash)
  • 00 3a (colon)
  • 00 3b (semicolon)
  • 00 3f (question mark)
  • 00 5c (backslash)

Rock Ridge

El Torito

A 1995 specification by IBM and Phoenix for creating bootable ISO9660 CDROM's.

UDF (ISO 13346)

Also known as ECMA-167, UDF provides for packet-based reading and writing.

See Also