- Denotational semantics -- map grammatical elements directly to mathematical functions
- Axiomatic semantics -- apply a system of axioms + deduction rules to the grammar
- Operational semantics -- map language constructs to a simple (well-defined) abstract machine
- Attribute grammars (Knuth, 1968) -- extensions of context-free grammars. An attribute grammar AG consists of:
- a context-free grammar G
- a finite set of attributes A
- a finite set of semantic rules having form R : AG = (G, A, R ).
- Paaki's 1995 survey, Attribute Grammar Paradigms -- A High-Level Methodology in Language Implementation.