Tunneling

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SSH

This information largely pertains to OpenSSH, although other SSH agents ought theoretically be able to implement similar functionality.

  • Individual TCP ports can be forwarded using the -L and -R options. The latter involves an RFC 4254 "tcpip-forward"-type request.
    • Set the ExitOnForwardFailure configuration directive to yes to reliably detect forwarding failures
  • X11 can be forwarded using the -X option. This will involve "x11"-type requests.
  • Arbitrary Ethernet ("ethernet") or IP ("point-to-point") tunnel devices can be forwarded with -w.
    • The remote side must have set PermitTunnel to yes or a value matching the configured TunnelDevice type

OpenVPN

Steganography

  • snow tunnels octets under trailing whitespace in ASCII lines

Special-purpose tools