Programming languages

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Formal Semantics

  • Denotational semantics -- map grammatical elements directly to mathematical functions
  • Axiomatic semantics -- apply a system of axioms + deduction rules to the grammar
  • Operational semantics -- map language constructs to a simple (well-defined) abstract machine
  • Attribute grammars (Knuth, 1968) -- extensions of context-free grammars. An attribute grammar AG consists of:
    • a context-free grammar G
    • a finite set of attributes A
    • a finite set of semantic rules having form R : AG = (G, A, R ).


See Also